563 -The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is dedicated for the second time after being destroyed by earthquakes. 640 -John IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope 1046 -Pope Clement II, [Suitger] elected 1294 -Cardinal Benedetto Gaetani chosen as Pope Boniface VIII 1476 -400 Burgundy soldiers freeze to death during siege of Nancy 1515 -Thomas Wolsey appointed English Lord Chancellor 1565 -Compromise of the Nobles closes against inquisition 1568 -Uprising of Morisco's in Granada 1593 -Storm hits Texel: 40 ships hit, 500 killed 1651 -John van Riebeeck departs to Cape of Good Hope 1715 -Swedish troops occupy Norway 1724 -Benjamin Franklin arrives in London 1777 -Kiritimati, also called Christmas Island, is discovered by James Cook 1798 -Russia & England sign Second anti-French Coalition 1799 -Jakobijns plot against Napoleon uncovered 1814 -Treaty of Ghent (end of US-Britain's War of 1812) signed 1818 -"Silent Night" composed by Franz Joseph Gruber; 1st sung next day 1818 -Franz Xaver Gruber composes "Silent Night" 1832 -1st US Negro hospital founded by whites chartered, Savannah, Ga 1832 -HMS Beagle anchors in Wigwam Bay at Cape Receiver 1851 -Fire devastates Library of Congress in Wash, destroys 35,000 volumes 1851 -US Library of Congress catches fire; 35,000 books burn 1860 -Joseph Jefferson's "Rip Van Winkle," premieres in NYC 1864 -Battle of Gordonsville, VA 1865 -Several Confederate veterans form Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tn 1871 -Giusseppi Verdi's "Aida" premieres in Cairo, at Suez canal opening 1874 -Pope Pius IX proclaims a jubilee for 1875 1884 -Austria-Hungary admits King Leopold II's Congo Free State 1889 -Daniel Stover & William Hance patent bicycle with back pedal brake 1893 -Henry Ford completes his 1st useful gas motor 1894 -Scheveningse fishing boats destroyed by storm 1894 -Soccer team Achilles '94 forms in Axes 1898 -Herman Heijermans' "Ghetto," premieres in Amsterdam 1900 -Herman Heijermans' "Hope of Blessing" premieres in Amsterdam 1904 -German SW Africa abolishes slavery of young children 1906 -Reginald A Fessenden became 1st to broadcast music over radio (Mass) 1910 -Luisa Tetrazzini sings to 250,000 people at Lotta's Fountain 1912 -Irving Fisher patents archiving system with index cards 1914 -German plane drops bombs on Dover England 1920 -Enrico Caruso gives his last public performance (NYC) 1922 -BBC sends 1st British radio play "Truth about Father Christmas" 1922 -London Coloseum opens 1924 -1st radio transmission of NCRV in Netherlands 1924 -Albania becomes a republic (ex-premier Ahmed Zogoe's coup) 1924 -Richard Rodgers Theater (46th St Chanin's) opens at 226 W 46th NYC 1924 -School in Babb's Switch, Oklahoma catches fire, 36 die 1927 -Test Cricket debut of Walter Hammond, who scored 51 & took 5-36 v S Af 1928 -George Abbott Theater (Adelphi, 54 St) opens at 152 W 54th St NYC 1930 -Bandung, Java: ir Sukarno 4 years jail sentenced 1930 -F Garcia Lorca's "La Zapatera Prodigiosa," premieres in Madrid 1932 -Arturo Alessandri wins presidental election in Chile 1933 -Paris express train derails & kills 160, injures 300 (France) 1934 -Grimmett takes 9-180 for SA as Queensland make 430 1935 -Bradman scores 233 in 191 mins, SA v Queensland, 28 fours 1 six 1935 -National Council of Negro Women forms 1936 -1st radioactive isotope medicine administered, Berkeley, Ca 1937 -Dutch govt recognizes Italian king Emanuel III as emperor of Abyssinia 1939 -World War II: Pope Pius XII makes a Christmas Eve appeal for peace. 1941 -1st ships of admiral Nagumo's Pearl Harbor-fleet return to Japan 1942 -1st powered flight of V-1 buzz bomb, Peenemunde, Germany 1942 -Red army occupies German airports at Tasjinskaja & Morozowsk 1943 -FDR appoints Gen Eisenhower supreme commander of Allied forces 1943 -Terence Rattigan's "While the Sun Shines," premieres in London 1946 -4th French republic established 1946 -US General MacNarney gives 800,000 "minor nazi's" amnesty 1946 -France's Fourth Republic is founded. 1948 -1st US house completely sunheated is occupied (Dover Mass) 1948 -Greek govt disbands due to state of war, press censorship 1950 -Cleveland Browns win NFL championship, beat LA 30-28 1951 -1st televised opera (Amahl & Night Visitor) 1951 -United Kingdom of Libya gains independence from Italy via UN 1953 -2 fast express trains crash head-on killing 103 (Czechoslovakia) 1953 -KHOL (now KHGI) TV channel 13 in Kearney, NB (ABC) begins broadcasting 1953 -KOA (now KCNC) TV channel 4 in Denver, CO (NBC) begins broadcasting 1953 -René Coty elected pres of France 1953 -Wellington-Auckland (NZ) express train swept away in flood kills 166 1954 -Council for the Children Protection forms in Neth 1954 -Laos gains its independence 1956 -"I Love Lucy" Christmas show airs, never put in syndication 1956 -Ferdinand de Lesseps statue blown up in Port Said Egypt 1960 -Dutch bishops question papacy values 1961 -Houston Oilers beat San Diego Chargers 10-3 in AFL championship game 1962 -USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR 1963 -Greek & Turks riot in Cyprus 1964 -Shooting begins on "The Cage" the pilot for Star Trek 1966 -"Joyful Noise" closes at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC after 12 perfs 1966 -Luna 13 lands on Moon 1966 -USAF C144 military charter crashes near Binh Thai Vietnam kills 129 1967 -China PR performs nuclear test at Lop Nor PRC 1967 -Pirate Radio Pegasus starts broadcasting off New Zealand 1968 -Apollo 8 astronauts read passages from Book of Genesis 1968 -WATU (now WAGT) TV channel 26 in Augusta, GA (CBS) begins broadcasting 1970 -9 Jews are convicted in Leningrad of hijacking a plane 1970 -Walt Disney's "Aristocats" is released 1971 -Peruvian Airlines Electra crashes at headwaters of Amazon, killing all except Juliane Margaret Koepcke found 10 days later 1973 -Ferryboat capsized off coast of Equador, drowning 200 1973 -District of Columbia Home Rule Act is passed, allowing residents of Washington, D.C. to elect their own local government. 1974 -Cardinals' Lou Brock is named Sportsman of the Year 1979 -1st Ariane-rocket launched 1980 -Americans remembered Iran hostages by shining lights for 417 seconds
1981 -Guardian Angels Curtis Sliwa & Lisa Evers marry 1981 -USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR 1982 -Chaminade, with a student body of only 850 students, beats #1 ranked Virginia 77-72 in a Honolulu holiday basketball classic 1984 -Palace coup in Mauritania 1986 -French hostage Aurel Cornea, held in Lebanon for 9 months, released 1986 -Iran offensive against Iraqi islands of Shatt al-Arab 1989 -Charles Taylor enters Liberia to unseat President Samuel K Doe 1989 -Panama's dictator, Manual Noriega seeks asylum at Vatican embassy 1990 -Expos trade Tim Raines to White Sox for Ivan Calderon & Barry Jones 1990 -Saddam says Israel will be Iraq's 1st target 1991 -Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as head of Soviet Union 1992 -Pres Bush pardons Caspar Weinberger of Iran-contra affair 1994 -4 Moslem fundamentalists capture Air France pilot in Algiers 1997 -1st time a Channukah candle is officially lit in Vatican City 1997 -The Sid El-Antri massacre (or Sidi Lamri) in Algeria kills 50-100 people. 1997 -The Dominican Republic becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty. 2000 -The Texas 7 hold up a sports store in Irving, Texas. Police officer Aubrey Hawkins is shot during the robbery. 2003 -The Spanish police thwart an attempt by ETA to detonate 50 kg of explosives at 3:55 p.m. inside Madrid's busy Chamartín Station.