The differences between your eyes and your camera

A quick anatomy refresher View the complete gallery

I have worn glasses all my life, and as a result, I was introduced to the magic of optics way before I ever considered getting into photography.

Then, when I started learning more about the magic of photography, I started noticing things with my own eye-sight: For example, in bright daylight, I can see further than in twilight. Why? I'll leave you to solve this one yourself (think about it!) - the solution is at the end of this article.

As a photographer, I'm often intrigued by the physics of how photography is similar (and different) to how my eyes work - so I figured it was time to write a little article about how it all hangs together.

Camera vs Eyes: Similarities

To better understand the answer to this question, let's first have a quick comparison of various similarities and differences found in the working of the human eye and a photo camera.

Image focusing: Human and camera lenses both focus an inverted image onto light-sensitive surface. In the case of a camera, it's focused onto film or a sensor chip. In your eyes, the light-sensitive surface is the retina on the inside of your eyeball.

Light adjustment: Both the eye and a camera can adjust quantity of light entering. On a camera, it's done with the aperture control built into your lens, whilst in your eye, it's done by having a larger or smaller iris.

Camera vs Eyes: Differences

Absolute versus subjective measuring of light: Simply speaking, the human eye is a subjective device. This means that your eyes work in harmony with your brain to create the images you perceive: Your eyes are adjusting the focus (by bending the light through the lens in your eyeballs) and translating photons (light) into an electrical impulse your brain can process. From there onwards, it's all about your brain: It is continuously readjusting its colour balance according to the lighting context. In other words, our eyes know what must be seen as red or white or black etc.

A camera, on the other hand, is an absolute measurement device - It is measuring the light that hits a series of sensor, but the sensor is 'dumb', and the signals recorded need to be adjusted to suit the color temperature of the light illuminating the scene, for example

Lens focus: In camera, the lens moves closer/further from the film to focus. In your eyes, the lens changes shape to focus: The muscles in your eyes change the actual shape of the lens inside your eyes.

Sensitivity to light: A film in a camera is uniformly sensitive to light. The human retina is not. Therefore, with respect to quality of image and capturing power, our eyes have a greater sensitivity in dark locations than a typical camera.

There are lighting situations that a current digital cameras cannot capture easily: The photos will come out blurry, or in a barrage of digital noise. As an example, when observing a fluorescence image of cells under a microscope, the image you can see with your eyes would be nigh-on impossible to capture for an ordinary camera. This is mainly because of the fact that the amount of light entering the camera (and your eyes) is so low.

Your eye as a camera

So, as a quick re-cap, let's take a look at how each of the components in your eyes are similar to that in a camera:

The Human Eye

  1. Your Cornea behaves much like the front lens element of a lens. Together with the lens, which is behind the iris, they are the eye's focusing elements. The cornea takes widely diverging rays of light and bends them through the pupil, the round opening in the central portion of the coloured iris.
  2. Your Iris and pupil act like the aperture of a camera. The iris is a muscle which, when contracted, covers all but a small central portion of the lens, allows adjustable control of the quantity of light entering the eye so that the eye can work well in a wide range of viewing conditions, from dim to very bright light.
  3. Finally, your Retina is the sensory layer that lines the very back of our eyes. It acts very much like the imaging sensor chip in a digital camera. The retina has numerous photoreceptor nerve cells that help change the light rays into electrical impulses and send them through the optic nerve to the brain where an image (of what we see) is finally received and perceived. Because of this reception and perception function, retina is, perhaps, the most important component of our eyes. As with the camera, if the "film" is bad in the eye (i.e. the retina), no matter how good rest of the eye is, we will not get a good quality image or picture.

What is ISO and why is it important?

ISO is the number signifying the light sensitivity of an imaging sensor; it is measured in numbers (like 100, 200, 400, 800 etc). Sometimes, this number is also known as an "ISO number", or, more commonly, the "film speed". Historically, the lower the ISO number, the lower the sensitivity of the film and the finer the grain in the pictures or shots you are taking. This has translated pretty well into digital photography, too: Higher ISO gives you higher sensitivity, but at the cost of a larger amount of digital noise.

ISO is the indication of how sensitive a film is to light. This means that the higher the ISO setting, the more sensitive the camera sensor is to light. Accordingly, if you take a picture with ISO 400 settings, you only need 1/4 of the light that will be needed to take a picture with ISO 100 camera settings.

Trying to track down the ISO of the human eye

The real issue with the human eye is that, unlike film and camera sensors, our eyes do not have any definite ISO levels. However, our eyes do have a great ability to naturally adjust to ambient light levels even under the most severe lighting conditions.

However, the human eye has a mighty trick up its sleeve: it can modify its own light sensitivity. After about 15 seconds in lower light, our bodies increase the level of rhodopsin in our retina. Over the next half hour in low light, our eyes get more an more sensitive. In fact, studies have shown that our eyes are around 600 times more sensitive at night than during the day.

It should also be noted that the human eye is like the greatest, quickest automatic camera in existence. Every time we change where we're looking, our eye (and retina) is changing everything else to compensate--focus, iris, dynamic range are all constantly adjusting to ensure that our eyesight is as good it can be.

In addition to straight-up light sensitivity (which we'll get back to in just a minute), the dynamic range of the human eye is absolutely astonishing: A human can see objects in starlight or in the brightest of sunlight. The difference between the two extremes is absolutely astonishing - In sunlight, objects receive 1,000,000,000 times more light than on a moonless night - and yet, we are able to see under both circumstances

The spanner in the works: Shutter speed

Where our comparison gets complicated is when we mix in shutter speed. In order to do a like-for-like comparison between the human eye and a camera, we can quite easily compare apertures and ISO (which is the most interesting exercise, in my opinion). But shutter speeds makes it complicated, because a camera can stay open for as long as we need it to. In fact, there are examples of photos taken with a 6-month shutter opening, something which the human eye can obviously not match.

Exploring what the shutter speed of a human eye is is actually surprisingly complicated, but let's look to animation for a start: If you have ever seen any simple animation, you will have noticed that if you don't get enough frames per second, things can look 'stuttery'. If you were to see a football game at 1fps, for example, you would essentially be seeing a series of 1 photo per second (at a maximum of 1 second shutter speed). Obviously, that's not going to do any good, and the human eye has a 'shutter speed' of faster than that. To explore this question in further depth, I highly recommend the "How many frames per second can the human eye see" article over at Despite the name of the site, their conclusion is that they don't really know, because it depends on how you measure the results.

For low light photography, however, we don't need to know the minimum shutter speed of the human eye, but the maximum. Obviously, we can sit perfectly still and stare at a forest in the pitch dark for half an hour, but we might not be able to 'see' anything, even though we, in theory, have had a half-hour exposure. At the same time, a camera might be able to resolve something in that half hour (but it might not). When it comes to our own eyes, it becomes less meaningful to speak of a "shutter speed" as such - our eyes see with an exponential decay, and our vision is a continuous process. In other words, our eyes will take multiple 'exposures', and our brain will combine them into a more meaningful image, much like you might do when you are taking a multi-exposure HDR photograph with your camera.

So, back to the point of this section, what is the ISO when we are talking about cameras, versus the human eye?

The human eye is extremely good at resolving images in bright light, and it becomes meaningless to speak of 'noise' - not because our eyes aren't misfiring every now and again, but because our brain simply filters out any problems our eyes encounter (Just think about how your brain is constantly filtering out the two blind spots you have - one in each eye - even if you are closing one eye and looking with the other. If you have never experienced your blind spot - give it a shot, it's rather astonishing).

So, for the sake of argument, let's say that the minimum ISO of our eyes, on a bright sunny day, is ISO 25. Why 25? Because that's the lowest-ISO film that's currently in use, with the least grain and the highest quality around. If the lowest ISO of our eyes is 25, and our eyes are 600 times more sensitive in the dark, that means that the maximum ISO of the human eye would land somewhere around ISO 15,000 or so. If you choose ISO 100 as our base ISO for the human eye (which is equally fair, considering that we're comparing eyes to digital cameras, and most digital SLRs these days start at ISO 100) - our maximum ISO is around 60,000.

When we consider that the highest-ISO cameras (Like the Nikon D3S) can take photos at up to ISO 102,000 (see an example set of pictures at different ISOs over at The Imaging Resource), it becomes clear that our built-in technology is starting to lag behind what the camera manufacturers are cooking up!

Resources & references
  1. Blackwell, J. Opt. Society America, v 36, p624-643, 1946
  2. Middleton, Vision through the Atmosphere, U. Toronto Press, Toronto, 1958
  8. An example set of pictures at extremely high ISO at different ISOs over at The Imaging Resource
  9. The ultimate guide to HDR photography
  10. An example of a photo taken with a 6-month shutter speed
Solution to the riddle

At the beginning of this article, I had a little riddle for you - in bright daylight, I can see further than in twilight. Why?

For the same reason as in photography: Imagine you have a camera that's focused on 1 meter, but with broken focus. In bright daylight, you may be able to use f/16 aperture, which means that you can see beyond 1 meter (due to the increased depth of field). In lower light, you have to use a larger aperture (say, f/2.8), which gives you a lower depth of field, and you may only be able to photograph things that are 1 meter away. In bright light, your eyes contract (you get tiny little pupils), and in low light, the opposite happens. Just like when you're taking photos!

Google begins censoring autocomplete results for BitTorrent, RapidShare and other Big Media profanity

Tried searching for "BitTorrent," "RapidShare," "uTorrent," "MegaUpload" or even "Ubuntu torrent" lately? Good luck finding a Google domain that'll autocomplete those results for you. Presumably caving to pleading from theMPAA and / or RIAA, El Goog has quietly begun to censor the results it shows when typing the above terms. Needless to say, the aforesaid companies aren't too keen on the new procedures, and strangely enough, a number of other sites that would typically be grouped into this same category -- MediaFire, 4shared and HotFile -- remain on the cleared list. Hit the source link if you're looking for loads of responses from companies angered with Google's move, and feel free to reset your homepage to Bing, Yahoo or any other search engine who has yet to bend. You know, if you're feeling rebellious.

Wireless electricity enables next generation of annoying packaging

Yep, these cereal boxes light up. They’re using a new branded-technology called eCoupling that provideselectricity via induction, which means the shelves have a coil with AC power running through it. The “printed coils” on the boxes allow inventory control and data exchange presumably thanks to a low-power microcontroller. But in the video after the break you can see that the printed lighting on the boxes lets them flash parts of the box art as a way to attract customers’ attention. We’d bet that they’re using electroluminescent materials but we weren’t able to get find specifics on how this is done. We just hope advertisers don’t start rolling noise-makers into their packaging.

Rajini wants to act in Kannada film directed by Upendra

Here is some good news for Rajinikanth fans.After almost thirty years,Rajini has expressed his desire to act in Kannada films provided he is happy with the script.
After watching director Upendras just released film Super at Renukamba theatre in Bangalore on Thursday,Rajinikanth expressed his desire to sign up a Kannada film directed by Upendra.He is a great director-cum-actor.I am very impressed and want to act in his film, said the superstar.
Incidentally,Rajinis recent super hit E n d h i r a n or Robot directed by S h a n k a r was similar to Upendras film Hollywood.Though Rajinikanth hails from Karnataka,the ever green superstar has only acted in a handful of Kannada movies.

Bangalore metro train ticket fair details

Namma Metro Just Rs 15 to reach MG Road. Namma Metro announces fares. A ride on the namma metro from Byapanahalli to MG Road will cost anything between Rs 10 to Rs 15. The fares for Bangalore metro will be decided similar to those of Delhi metro. Most likely for Reach 1 which will commence from April 2011, it will be between Rs 10 and Rs 15. BMRCL also announced a discounted annual ”Varshik” ticketing system, which offers a minimum of Rs 8.50 and a maximum of Rs 12.75.

Namma Metro will start operations in March or April 2011 but test runs have already been in place since December 20.

Bangalore Namma Metro Tickets

The Bangalore Metro Tickets will be issued in the following forms;

  • Contactless smart tokens (CST)
  • Contactless smart cards (CSC)—available as stored value ticket
  • Varshik and trip tickets
  • Sanchar—group tickets, and integrated metro-bus ticket.

The CST tokens, offering the non-discounted fares, are to be touched on the pad of the station entry gate and dropped into the slot at the exit gate of the exit station. Tokens will be available at the station’s ticket counters. Each token will be for single journey only. Each person can procure up to six tokens for five additional passengers travelling with him. Each passenger has to carry the token.

The CSCs will be available at stations for multiple journeys. CSCs provide discounted fares in the form of stored value tickets and trip tickets.

The CSC will be available for Rs 50, which will be non-refundable and different from the stored value of a CSC. After purchasing the CSC, the commuter can load Varshik or Sanchar or both tickets in the same CSC to the required value or trips.

Bangalore Metro Fares for Tokens

The stored value tickets (named Varshik) has money value stored in it and gets reduced to the extent journey is performed. Varshik is valid for one year from the date of last “add value.”

Bangalore Metro Fares for Varshik

A trip ticket (named Sanchar) has a fixed number of trips (10, 40, 50 or 100 trips) stored into it. One trip is a journey with an “entry” followed by an “exit” from a station. Trips can be purchased in advance for journeys between any two stations; and this will be beneficial for commuters travelling regularly between fixed places. Sanchar10, is valid for one month, Sanchar 40 and 50 are valid for three months and Sanchar 100 is valid for six months from the date of last “add trip.”

Bangalore Metro Fares for Sanchar

Group tickets in the form of paper tickets will be issued to a group of minimum of 10 passengers travelling together between same set of stations. These tickets are manually checked at separate entry / exit gates at the stations. These tickets will get a discount of 10 per cent of the token fare for each passenger.

BMRCL and BMTC will jointly introduce daily pass—an integrated metro-bus ticket (MBT pass)—for unlimited journeys on Namma Metro and in BMTC buses for the day. These will be available in BMTC Buses and at Metro stations. Passengers have to purchase the CSCs (if they don’t have) to avail of this facility.

There are two categories-Saral and Saraag-of MBT pass. The Saral ticket costing Rs 110 will allow commuters to travel in all BMTC buses (except airport services) and Metro. The Saraag ticket, priced at Rs 70, will allow passengers to travel in BMTC non air-conditioned buses and on the Metro.

For more information on Sanchar Tickets (integrated metro-bus ticket), Click here – Integrated Metro-Bus Tickets Fare.

Namma Metro Fare Chart Summarized

It’s official. You can travel on Namma Metro from Byappanahalli to MG Road for fares ranging from a minimum of Rs 10 to a maximum of Rs 15. The fare chart was released on Saturday.

namma metro fare chart

Openings for Testing Engnr at Cavisson Systems Inc

Company Name: Cavisson Systems Inc

Location: Noida

Experience: 2 - 4 years

How to Apply: Please send your updated resumes to

Job Description:

  • Should have Working Experience and indepth knowledge on Load Runner,Should be familiar of Linux/C/Shell and have excellent analytical skills for Test case generation and testing.
  • Knowledge of HTTP protocol, networking & Load testing be a plus.
  • Working on innovative performance testing tool of Web Applications
    Requirement document reviews, test plan and test cases documentation,Manual and automated testing.
  • Bug tracking using Bugzilla and detailed analysis of bugs

About Cavisson Systems Inc:

Cavisson Systems specializes in performance analysis and capacity planning of web based applications that enable companies to achieve target Application service level agreements (SLA).

Openings for QA & Testing at Navis India Technologies Private Limited

Company Name: Navis India Technologies Private Limited

Location: Chennai

Experience: 3 - 7 years

How to Apply: Please send your updated resumes to

Job Description:

  • Design and develop Test cases based on software requirements and technical understanding of Product architecture.
  • Execute Manual and automated test cases
  • Document bugs in defect tracking system.
  • Review requirements
  • Run Regression test cases, load test, and system tests for new product releases.
  • Create new automated test cases and update existing automated test cases from existing manual tests or from written documentation
  • Integrate product knowledge from testers, developers and product managers into the testing process.
  • Assist in reproducing, investigating and debugging software issues in coordination with Support and Development.
  • Work in scripting languages to develop and run automated tests.
  • Write documentation to describe testing process and procedures
  • Communicate status of ongoing testing efforts
  • Ability to effectively manage time and work on multiple projects simultaneously

About Navis India Technologies Private Limited:

ebra Technologies Corporation (NASDAQ: ZBRA) helps customers put the right asset in the right place at the right time. Serving more than 90 percent of Global Fortune 500 companies in more than 100 countries around the world, Zebra offers the broadest range of innovative technology solutions to identify, track, and manage the deployment of critical assets for improved business efficiency.

Zebra Specialty Printing Group (SPG) designs and sells specialty printing devices that print variable information, bar coded labels, RFID tags, receipts, and ID cards on-demand at the point of issuance. These devices are used worldwide by our customers in manufacturing, retail, healthcare, service organizations and governments for automatic identification, data collection and personal identification in applications that improve productivity, deliver better customer service and provide more effective security.

Openings for Team Lead at Infokall Enterprise Solutions Ltd

Company Name: Infokall Enterprise Solutions Ltd

Location: Hyderabad

Experience: 5 - 7 years

How to Apply: Please send your updated resumes to

Job Description:

  • Should have performance testing 5 yrs mandatory with load runner experience
  • Run Regression Test cases, load test, and system tests for new Productreleases.
  • Create new automated test cases and update existing automated test cases from existing Manual tests or from written documentation
  • Assist in reproducing, investigating and debugging software issues in coordination with Support and Development.
  • Work in scripting languages to develop and run automated tests.
  • Write documentation to describe testing process and procedures
  • Communicate status of ongoing testing efforts
  • Ability to effectively manage time and work on multiple projects simultaneously

About Infokall Enterprise Solutions Ltd:

Infokall is a SEI CMM Level 3 and ISO 9002:2000 company and is a leading provider of Enterprise Application Integration solutions and delivering intelligent mobile solutions since its inception. In today’s competitive environment, organizations require real-time access to comprehensive, concise and relevant data. Infokall delivers solutions that allow organizations to leverage their existing systems, integrate data and enables access to the information anytime, anywhere. Infokall has successfully integrated systems and automated business processes, for fortune 500 companies, receiving significant returns through increased efficiency, speed and profitability. Infokall has been selected by many law enforcement agencies for their Automated Field Reporting systems and successfully deployed intelligent mobile solutions for health care and logistics verticals.

Openings for Team Lead & Tech Lead at Indrani Consultants

Company Name: Indrani Consultants

Location: Bangalore

Experience: 5 - 7 years

How to Apply: Please send your updated resumes

Job Description:

  • One of our MNC client in the healthcare domain is looking at candidates with about 5 years of experience for a Test lead position.
  • The candidate must have QTP & VB Script experience and must be leading a team.

About Indrani Consultants:

Product dev. client of Indrani Consultants.

Openings for Automation Tester at Saviance Technologies

Company Name: Saviance Technologies

Location: Bangalore

Experience: 2 - 7 years

How to Apply: Please send your updated resumes to

Job Description:

  • Automation Tester with 2-3 or 3-5 years of exp.
  • Should have strong exp with JavaScript
  • Orace Apps exp is plus

About Saviance Technologies:

Saviance Technologies offers the complete spectrum of IT Solutions, Products , Consulting and Training including Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services to our clients to enable them to focus on their core processes and meet their evolving business objectives.

Our Center of Excellence for Web Development and Mobile Applications delivers high quality, cost effective, world class solutions for startups, non-profits and enterprise organizations.

We have a cost effective, scalable and innovative business model, which provides flexibility for 24×7 operations. Our systems are oriented towards one objective – to be an efficient, competent and ethical organization, which is a reliable and profitable partner to its clients, vendors and stakeholders.


Toyota Kirloskar Motor, Bidadi, Bangalore has established Toyota Technical Training Institute to offer 3 years free training with boarding, lodging and stipend to financially poor students from rural areas in Karnataka. The training  will be in the area of Automobile engineering. Admission is open to only boy candidates, below 18 years of age  as on 15th July 2011 and have passed SSLC with minimum 50% in Maths, Science and overall. I am attaching herewith the admission application form for the year 2011 along a brief details about the training and facilities offered,. I shall be greatful, if you could give wide publicity through your sangha so that finacially, poor, rural students can get benefits.
Contact Details :
TEL NO 91-80-66292532/36
Mobile: 09740900172

How to access blocked web sites from school, office, or work using JAP

JAP is a free open-source software tool that can be used to browse the web anonymously and unobservably. Whenever you browse the Internet, your IP uniquely identifies your computer and your location to the requesting servers, thereby reducing your privacy. JAP uses a single static IP address for many JAP users, thereby making it impossible for the visited website or any sniffer to determine which user visited.


The extra benefit that we can also get out of using JAP other than anonymous browsing is the fact that it can be used to access blocked web sites! That’s because all requests are first passed to JAP servers, then the requested sites are retrieved from their servers. Basically, for the local servers that control your access, it looks as if you’re always requesting something from the JAP web site, not FaceBook or MySpace, etc.

Here’s how to setup JAP: first download the JAP app from the link above. Install it and make sure it’s up and running. Then all you have to do is change some of the settings in Internet Explorer or Firefox. You have to change the LAN Settings so that the Default Gateway is and the port is 4001.

In IE, click on Tools, then Internet Options, and click on the Connections tab.

lan settngs

If you’re connecting to the Internet using a dial-up, modem, or ISDN connection, choose your connection and then click on the Settings button at the top. If you’re connected permanently using a LAN, Cable or DSL connection, click on the Settingsbutton under Local Area Network (LAN) settings heading.

browse anonymously

Check the Proxy Server box and type in the IP address and port number shown above.

For Firefox, you click on Tools, then Options, and then click on the Advanced tab. Under Connection, click on Settings.

jap ports

Click on Manual Proxy Configuration and enter in the same information. Check the box to use this proxy for all protocols. You can also download a cool plugin in Firefox called SwitchProxy that will allow you to quickly switch between JAP and normal browsing.

You should now be able to access blocked web sites while JAP is running. However, if you are at the office or at school and the only ports that are open are port 80, and 443, then JAP won’t work without a little more tweaking.

  • In JAP under “Config/InfoService“, change the port from 6543 to 80
  • Go to the “Config/Anonymity” page. Click on the “Fetch” button and choose the “Dresden-Dresden” cascade from the drop down menu.
  • Select the “Manual Configurationradio button and change the Anon-Port from 6544 to 443

Now try to activate the anonymous web access. If you’re able to connect, you’ll now be able to browse web sites using the normal web access ports so even if your company or school blocks all other ports, you’ll still be able to access JAP.

Also, if your company forces you to access the web through a proxy server, then you’ll need to configure that in JAP. You can see if you have to go through a proxy server by checking out the values in the above LAN settings section. If it’s greyed out with something already in there when you tried to change it to, that means you’re going through a proxy server.

In that case, in JAP you need to do the following:

  • Activate the checkbox under “Config/Proxy-Firewall” and enter the address of the required proxy. Some proxies require a user authorization. If this is the case, activate the appropriate checkbox and enter the User ID. (First try it without authorization and only do this step if it doesn’t work.)
  • Under “Config/InfoService“, change the port number from 6543 to “80″.
  • Go to the “Config/Anonymity” page. Click on the “Fetch” button and choose the “Dresden-Dresden” cascade from the drop down menu.

You should now be able to connect to the JAP service and access any web site that you like! If that was too technical or something was not explained clearly, please post a comment and I will try to help as much as possible! Enjoy!

[tags]JAP, anonymous web browsing, access blocked web sites, unblock websites, access block website, how to access blocked site from school, access blocked sites from work[/tags]

How to unblock Pen drive blocked-disabled at office or college computer

We have observed this problem at may places that you need some data on your pen drive but the USB drive or pen drive does not work. Windows gives a notification

New mass storage driver

“Found new hardware, USB Mass Storage Device, please install drivers for it.”

Windows will now show a New Hardware Wizard to install the drivers. Lets see in details how we can fix this problem.


There are more than one ways in which the USB drives are disabled by Administrators at offices or colleges or schools. These methods are:

1. By Disabling USB Ports from Device Manager.

2. By Tweaking Registry values for USB Mass Storage Devices.

3. By Un-installing the USB Mass Storage Drivers.

We will see how to fix all these situations one by one. But before you begin, you must have administrator rights on that computer to fix the issue. If you don’t have the rights, see this post on getting admin rights on windows computer.

Lets go one by one for the solution now.


i) Go to Start > Run, in run prompt type “devmgmt.msc” and press enter. This will open device manager.

ii) Go to Universal Serial bus Controller. See if there are any red colored cross? If yes, right click and enable those USB Ports.

Enable USB at Device manager

Now try and use the pen drive. If it works fine, then great, else read the next two steps also.


i) Go to Start > Run , type “regedit” and press enter, this will open registry editor.

ii) Navigate to the keyHKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\USBSTOR

registry chane to make USB mass storage work

iii) Double-click on the “Start” key to modify its value, change the value to 3 and press OK.

Now remove and connect the pen drive again, it should work fine, if it does not, then it means the drivers are missing. Follow the steps below to solve the issue.


In case the USB Mass Storage drivers are not installed, windows will prompt you to install the driver. In such a case, windows will launch Hardware Update Wizard. If you have USB Mass storage drivers, you can install it and restart the computer, it should work. If not, you can download the USB Mass Storage drivers here. Download and uznip the driver files on your desktop.

i) In hardware update wizard, Select the option to install the driver from a specific location and click next.

Hardware update wizard

ii) Now on this screen, click browse and select the path on which you have un-zipped the drivers and press ok.

NOTE: Windows may give you a warning that the drivers has not passed Windows logo testing, so stop installation or Continue anyway, Select Continue anyway to complete installation.

continue anyways

Now restart your computer and re-insert your pen drive, it should now work.

How to Detect Hidden Cameras and Microphones

  • Perform a search in the room you think is bugged with cameras or microphones. Be detailed and focused and look in places you wouldn't normally suspect such as behind paintings, in plants or behind mirrors. Sometimes people will even use clothing or accessories, like a baseball cap, to plant a camera or microphone.


  • Check other potential hiding places as well. Cameras and microphones also can be hidden in ceilings or next to light fixtures. Other electronic devices like CDs, VCRs and alarm clocks can also be fitted with hidden surveillance equipment by experienced .

  • 3

    Turn off all the lights in the room and look out for tiny lights that might be green or red. Wait until your eyes get adjusted to the darkness before you begin your detailed search.

  • 4

    Check the room for wires. If you find any wires that do not attach to something or an outlet, then it is possible it is attached to a camera or microphone. However, be aware that wireless technology is also quite common now.

  • 5

    Keep your ears open. Turn off anything that might make noise or distract you. Walk into the room and listen for any buzzing, clicks or movement. Microphones and cameras tend to make little noises as they listen or watch you.

  • 6

    Buy a detector. You can buy a bug detector is you truly think someone is trying watch or listen to your every move. This product will detect any other device in the room and lead you right to it.

    Read more: How to Detect Hidden Cameras and Microphones |

  • How to use Mobile Number Portability

    Mobile Number Portability

    Those who are still unaware about Mobile Number Portability (MNP), it is a  service using which a mobile  phone subscriber can migrate from one operator to another without having to change his/her mobile number. For example, you can opt to choose for Vodafone services on your Airtel number or vice-versa, courtesy MNP. As posted earlier Mobile Number Portability has already been rolled out for cellular customers at Rohtak, Haryana and will be gradually introduced to other states covering the entire nation by next year mid January (20/01/2011). I am giving here some information related to the procedure of porting, porting charges,etc.

    Procedure for Porting Mobile Number in India:

    • Send an SMS:

    PORT<space>Mobile Number (that is to be ported) to 1900

    For ex. PORT 9812345678

    • Your existing operator will immediately provide you with an 8 digit alpha-numeric porting code that you need to submit to the operator you wish to opt to along with relevant documents. (The unique porting code will be valid only for 24 hours)
    • After consulting with your existing operator, new operator will move your number in a maximum of 4 days.

    Charges for Porting Mobile Number:

    As per TRAI, any telecom operator can charge a maximum of Rs. 19 towards porting charges.

    Some Queries related to Mobile Number Portability:

    • When will Mobile Number Portability Services be introduced pan-India?

    As per union minister of Telecommunications & IT, Mr. Kapil Sibal, MNP will be introduced pan-India by January 20, 2011.

    • What are the minimum and maximum time specified for porting number from one operator to another?

    Porting time could be anything between 24 hours to 4 days.

    • What are the charges for Porting to another operator?

    As mentioned above, service providers can charge a maximum of Rs. 19 for porting a number.

    • Who is eligible for availing mobile number portability?

    Any customer having a mobile number older than 90 days can migrate to another operator with the same number. He or She will have to wait for another 90 days before being able to port their number again.

    • Will my number be dead during the porting process?

    As per the details available, a number will remain dead for 2 hours approximately during the porting process. Fortunately, the 2 hours downtime will be between 10 PM and 5 AM IST.

    • Can I migrate my post-paid number to another operator with prepaid services or vice-versa?

    Yes, that can be done once you clear off all pending dues with the current operator.

    • Will my prepaid balance carry-forward to new operator?

    Unfortunately not. All remaining balance on your mobile will get lapsed and will not be carried-forward to the new operator. Thus, it’s advisable to completely use the available talk-time before moving to another operator.

    • Can I port my number from one circle (state) to another?

    Retaining same number while moving from one state to another is not possible unless MNP services are launched pan-India.

    • Can I port my CDMA number to GSM operator or vice versa?

    Yes, with the introduction of MNP, moving from CDMA to GSM or vice-versa is possible too, but your existing mobile will be rendered useless if you opt to move from CDMA to GSM technology.

    • Can I port my landline number to a mobile service provider?

    Porting a landline number to a mobile operator is possible in countries like US though, for now, Indian govt. has planned to launch MNP only for mobile phone users. India might witness landline number portability in the future.

    • Will I get any freebies from the operator I am porting my number to?

    Keeping in mind the bottle-neck competition in Indian telecom arena, you can definitely expect some freebies and goodies from your new operator. In fact, BSNL and TATA Docomo have already announced various freebies for subscribers porting to them.

    WikiLeaks got Data on Secret Swiss Bank Accounts

    A former Swiss banker today supplied anti-secrecy site WikiLeaks with two CDs containing account details on more than 2,000 high-profile politicians, celebrities, crime bosses and multinationals suspected of tax evasion.
    Swiss whistle-blower Rudolf Elmer -- the former chief operating officer of the Cayman Islands subsidiary for Swiss bank Julius Baer -- handed the discs to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange at a press conference in London. The data relate to offshore bank accounts allegedly held by individuals and companies from across the world, including the U.S., U.K. and Germany, and covers 1990 to 2009.

    Assange said the secret banking records could be published in "a matter of weeks" if they can be processed quickly enough. He added that he might seek the help of financial media outlets, or a nongovernmental organization such as the Tax Justice Network, to help analyze the information.
    The WikiLeaks boss is currently on bail in the U.K. and battling an extradition request by Sweden, where he is wanted for alleged sexual misconduct with two women. He has denied all of the accusations and refused to talk about his case at today's press conference.
    Elmer, who is due to stand trial Wednesday in Zurich on charges of breaking Switzerland's strict banking secrecy laws, told reporters he felt a moral obligation to make the files public.
    "I do think as a banker I have the right to stand up if something is wrong," he said. "I am against the system. I know how the system works, and I know the day-to-day business. From that point of view, I wanted to let society know what I know. It is damaging our society."
    The former banker is an experienced whistle-blower. Elmer worked at Julius Baer for a decade, but says he lost his job in December 2002 after raising concerns that the bank was helping some clients engage in criminal tax evasion.
    "After having tried in-house to resolve the issue," Elmer told the press conference, "I was fired."
    He spent the next three years attempting to persuade U.S. and Swiss authorities to intervene, and in 2005 he was sentenced to 30 days in a jail for violating Swiss banking secrecy.
    "Afterward I was offered money to withdraw my complaints," he said. "I refused. My conscience would not allow it."
    In 2008, he contacted WikiLeaks and supplied the site with hundreds of documents allegedly revealing money laundering and tax evasion by several Julius Baer clients.

    Regular Expression in TCL

    regexp {c.*g} "abcdefghi" matched

    puts $matched ;# ==> cdefg

    regexp {c((.*)g)} "abcdefghi" matched sub1 sub2 sub3

    puts $matched ;# ==> cdefghi

    puts $sub1 ;# ==> defg

    puts $sub2 ;# ==> def

    puts $sub3 ;# ==> hi

    How to take input from the user in TCL

    puts -nonewline "Enter number to factor: "

    #puts "Enter number "

    set num [gets stdin]

    for {set i $num} {$i>0} {incr i -1} {

    if { $num % $i == 0 } {

    puts $i



    Excel operations using tcl

    1.Install ActiveTcl 8.5 the command to work with excel

    teacup install tcom

    #1.How to create an excel and write data to that excel and save it using tcl

    #The below example explains how to write "india" in 3 rd row and A column

    package require tcom

    set application [::tcom::ref createobject "Excel.Application"]

    $application Visible 1

    set workbooks [$application Workbooks]

    set workbook [$workbooks Add]

    set worksheets [$workbook Worksheets]

    set worksheet [$worksheets Item [expr 1]]

    set cells [$worksheet Cells]

    # write data to excel at 3 rd row A coloumn

    $cells Item 3 A "india"

    # read data from excel from 3rd row A coloumn

    set str [[$cells Item 3 A] -get Value]

    puts $str

    #set i 0

    #foreach row {1 2 3} {

    # foreach column {A B C} {

    # $cells Item $row $column [incr i]

    # }


    $workbook SaveAs {c:\sample.xls}

    $application Quit

    How to write a function in TCL

    proc add {i j} {

    set sum [expr {$i+$j}]

    return $sum


    add 2 5


    puts "The returned value is [add 12 34]"

    o/p:The returned value is 46

    For loop in TCL

    for {set i 0 } {$i<5} {incr i } {

    > puts "welcome $i"

    > }

    o/p :

    welcome 0

    welcome 1

    welcome 2

    welcome 3

    welcome 4

    arrays in TCL

    set a(0) 56

    o/p :56

    set a(3) 78

    o/p :78

    puts $a(0)

    o/p :56

    puts $a(3)

    o/p :78

    New Line and Tab in TCL

    puts "welcome to \n new line"

    o/p :welcome to

    new line

    puts "welcome to \t tab"

    o/p :welcome to tab

    if else statment in TCL

    set i 10


    if {$i!=10} { puts "i value is not 10} else {

    > puts "i value is 10" }

    o/p:i value is 10

    if {$x==10} { puts “x value is $x”} else { puts “x value is not $x”}

    o/p:x value is 10

    Displaying values of variables in TCL

    set x 10


    puts $x


    set string “welcome to India”

    o/p:welcome to India

    puts $string

    o/p:welcome to India

    puts hai ; puts bye




    set i hai ; set x 5 ; puts "$i $x"

    o/p:hai 5

    set a 10.00 ; puts “I have $a rupees”

    o/p:I have 10.00 rupees

    set i hai ; set x 5 ; puts "$i \$x"

    o/p:hai $x

    puts {hai bye}

    o/p:hai bye

    set i 5

    expr { $i<10 ? ($i+10) : ($i-10) }


    set i [expr {$i+1} ]


    Putting Comments in TCL

    #this is comment

    Displaying messages and values in TCL

    puts India


    puts “welcome to India”

    o/p:welcome to India

    puts 58


    echo welcome to India

    welcome to India

    Files handling Operations in TCL


    Open the file for reading only; the file must already exist. This is the default value if access is not specified.


    Open the file for both reading and writing; the file must already exist.


    Open the file for writing only. Truncate it if it exists. If it doesn't exist, create a new file.


    Open the file for reading and writing. Truncate it if it exists. If it doesn't exist, create a new file.


    Open the file for writing only. The file must already exist, and the file is positioned so that new data is appended to the file.


    Open the file for reading and writing. If the file doesn't exist, create a new empty file. Set the initial access position to the end of the file.

    Small example programs for tcl

    #1.tcl keywords and variables are case sensitve.Filenames are not casesensitive

    #2.puts $i AND puts "$i" are same

    #3.arguments should be present at macro

    #4.Unknown variables .we get error

    puts "welcome to tcl"

    set i 5

    if {$i<10} {

    puts "i value is $i" }

    for { set i 6} {$i<9} {incr i } {

    puts " i value is $i" }

    while { $i<12} {

    puts "i value is $i"

    incr i }

    for { set k 5 } {$k>0} {incr k -1} {

    puts "k value is $k" }

    set j [expr {$i+1} ]

    puts "j value is $j"

    proc macro1 {code} {

    set id $code

    set k1 [string index $id 0]

    set k2 [string index $id 1]

    set k3 [string index $id 2]

    puts "the value of k1 is $k1 $k2 $k3"


    proc macro3 {bc} {

    puts "call another macro"

    proc macro4 {dc} {

    puts "this is another macro"



    proc optional {a b c {d ""} } {

    if {$d eq ""} {

    puts "there is no d value" } else {

    puts "d value is $d" }


    set n 21

    if {n!=20} {

    puts "n is not 20" }

    proc return1 { x y } {

    set a $x

    set b $y

    set c [expr {$a+$b}]

    return $c


    puts "ur return value is :[return1 10 20]"

    proc file1 {d} {

    set fp [open "D:\\sample.txt" r]

    while {[gets $fp data]>=0} {

    puts [gets $fp data]

    puts $data


    close $fp


    Tax Refunds mail- SCAM !! Be Careful


    When you click on the link "CLICK HERE", it takes you to which looks like a fishy website, as IT Dept websites will always have https or .in or .gov in the web address.



    If you select AXIS BANK/ HDFCBANK or any other bank, it will take you to respective Bank's Homepage but the web url address stills remains of




    DO NOT ENTER ANY BANK DETAILS DATA IN ANY OF THESE OR YOU WILL BE PARTED WITH YOUR HARD-EARNED MONEY IN A JIFFY. Please forward to as many people as possible and make them aware of these phishing mails.

    The Android Google Reader application

    It’s been a long time coming, but the official Google Reader app for Android is finally here. Let’s jump into the features, shall we?

    The app supports all the basics you’d expect like unread counts, friends, sharing, liking, and starring, but it also has a whole lot more, including:

    • Multiple accounts
    • Synced preferences
    • Full subscription features (subscribe and search from your phone)
    • Search

    Google Reader Android app screenshot

    A couple harder to discover features we’d like to highlight:

    • Volume-key navigation: if you enable this in the settings, you can navigate by using your phone’s volume keys for next and previous
    • Long-press on a folder or subscription to bring up a contextual menu that lets you rename, unsubscribe or change folders
    • If you hit the menu key on an individual item, you can use the “send” feature which integrates with other apps on your phone to send the item using any 3rd party app

    Send menu screenshot

    We’re really excited to make the first version of the app available today, and we hope you’ll try it out and let us know what you think on Twitter or our help forums.

    Update: Here's a link to the app on Android Market. It should run on Donut and higher.

    QR code with Market link




    Arsas,( Heamerroids), Vidbandham( Constipation), Vayukshobam (Vata Imbalance due to shock) , Grahani (Irritable bowel syndrom), Sosham (Emasiation), Gulmam,Krumi (Worms). 



    Vata rogam, Mano rogas (Psychic disorders), Apasmaaram ( Epilepsy), Moorchha ( Fainting ),Ksheena ( Weakness), Agni mandyam ( Weak digestion ). 



    Asrugdaram (Excess bleeding),ruk ( Pain ), Yonisravam ( Other vaginal discharges),jwara( fever), Raktapita,(bleeding through upper and lower orifices),Arsas ( Haemorrhoids), Agni mandyam ( week digestion ), Aruchi ( Anorexia), Prameham ( Diabetes),sosham ( Emaciation ) 



    All types of diseases for children, Giving more bala (Strength and immunity) 



    All types of vata disorders. 



    Dhaatu kshaya (Emaciation or loss of dhatu), kaasam ( Cough) Vandhyata ( Infertility ) 



    In almost all types of Jwara ( Fever), also in vatarakta. 



    Twak rogas ( Skin diseases), Dushtavranam ( Chronic wounds ) Kandu ( Itching ),Arsas (Haemorrhoids), Prameham 
    ( Diabetes ), jwaram ( Fever ). 



    Sukrameham ( Semen discharge or premature ejaculation ), Bleeding.. 
    Promoting bala (strength )and digestive power. 



    Arsas ( Haemorrhoids ),grahani ( irritable bowel syndrome ), paandu ( anaemia ), sopham( oedema), vidbandham 
    ( constipation ), aruchi ( anorexia),

    It is also good for vataanulomanam. 



    Soothika rogas ( Post natal disorders ), Grahani ( Irritable bowel syndrome ), Atisaaram ( Diarrhoea), Ksheenam 
    ( weakness),Vandhyata ( Infertility ), Aruchi (anorexia ), Swaasam ( asthma ), Gulmam, Bhagantaram ( Fistula ), Vata rogas, Chardhi ( Vomiting ), paandu ( Anaemia ),Kaamila ( Jaundice ), twak rogas ( skin diseases ), arsas ( haemorrhoids ), prameha ( Diabetes ), agnimaandya ( Weak digestion ), Mahodaram, Sarkara asmari ( kidney stone) . Mutra kruchram (difficulty in urination ), Dhaatu kshayam (emaciation or loss of dhaatus).

    Increasing Jaddharaagni (Digestive power). 



    Ksheenam ( weakness),Vandhyata ( Infertility ),grahani ( Irritable bowel syndrome ) Aruchi (anorexia ),Swaasam ( asthma ) Gulmam, Bhagantaram ( Fistula ) Vata rogas, Chardhi ( Vomiting ) paandu ( Anaemia ),Kaamila ( Jaundice ), twak rogas 
    ( skin diseases ), arsas ( haemorrhoids ), prameha ( Diabetes ). agnimaandya ( Weak digestion ), Mahodaram, Sarkara asmari (kidney stone) , Mutra kruchram (difficulty in urination ) Dhaatu kshayam (emaciation or loss of dhaatus). 



    Prameham ( Diabetes), vata raktam ,grahani ( irritable bowel syndrome),Arsas ( Haemorrhoids ),mootra kruchram 
    ( difficulty in urination )Kandu ( itching ) twak rogas ( skin diseases). 



    Vata rogas, gulmam, mootraakhaatam (anurea), antravrudhi( hernia), kshayam ( Emaciation or TB), Yoni rogam, Abhighaataja rogas (Disease due to external injuries). 
    Promoting bala ( strength) pushty (immunity) for Soothika, (post natal) 



    Urakshtam ( Chest injury or TB) Kshayam (Emaciation ),kaasam ( Cough ) swaasam ( Asthma) Kandda rogam 
    ( Throat infections) . 
    Promoting, bala ( Strength ) and facilitating bowel movement. 



    Arsas (Haemorrhoids), Vid bandham (Constipation ), Weak digestion. 



    Soothika rogas ( Post natal disorders ), Grahani ( Irritable bowel syndrome ), Atisaaram ( Diarrhoea).

    Increasing Jaddharaagni (Digestive power). 



    Swaasam ( Asthma), Kaasam (Cough), kshayam ( Emaciation ), Raktapita, Ura:kshatam (Chest injury), 
    Jeerna jwaram ( Chronic fever ). 



    Mahaa kushtam, Hrud rogam ( Heart diseases ), Paandu ( Anaemia).Arbudam ( Tumour), Gulmam, Grandhi (cyst), 
    Krumi ( Worms), Kaasam (Cough), Swaasam ( Asthma) Pleeha rogam (Spleen disorders)

    A good blood purifier. 



    Parinaama soola, Mahodaram, Kshayam, prameham( Diabetes ), Unmaadam(Psychic disorders), Udaavartam 
    (Upward movement of vayu in abdomen), Mootrakruchram ( Difficulty in urination ) 
    Apasmaaram (Epilepsy), Sukra dosham. 
    Increasing bala (strength),Pushty (Immunity), Digestive power. 



    Atisaaram (Diarrhoea),Jwaram (Fever), Grahani (Irritable bowel syndrome).

    Increasing Digestive power. 



    Prameham ( Diabetes), Paandu (Anaemia), Arsas (Haemorrhoids), Aruchi ( Anorexia), Grahani (Irritable bowel syndrome ), Switram ,Kushtam (Skin diseases ). 
    Also it reduces the weight .



    Paandu (Anaemia), Sopham (oedema),Gulmam, mahodaram,arsas (haemorrhoids),Twak roga 
    (skin diseases ), Pleeha rogam (Spleen disorder), Kandu (Itching),Swaasam (Asthma), 
    Kaasam (Cough), Bhagantaram( Fistula), Arochakam(Tastelessness),Grahani (irritable bowel syndrome ), 
    Hrudrogam (Heart disorder).

    Increases digestive power. 



    Grahani ( Irritable bowel syndrome ),Sopham ( Oedema),Kushtam (Skin diseases )Switram ,Prameham (Diabetes). 
    Increases body weight. 



    Almost all kinds of Twak rogas (Skin diseases). 


    Grahani ( Irritable bowel syndrome), Arsas ( Haemorrhoids), Udaavartam (Upward movement of vayu in the abdomen), Ashteela, Gulmam, Mahodaram, Krumi , Twak rogas (Skin Diseases), Vranam ( Wounds), Sirorogam, (Head ache), Nethra rogam (eye diseases), Kandtha rogam ( Throat diseases)

    Also increases the digestive capacity. 



    Grahani ( irritable bowel syndrome), Ajeernam (Indigestion), Agni maandyam (Weak digestive power), Vishoochika ( pain in the abdomen due to aama). 



    Paandu ( anaemia), Jwaram ( fever ), kaamila ( jaundice), Udaram, ashteela, gulmam,haleemakam, pleeharogam, sosham 
    ( emaciation ),Yakrud rogam ( Liver disorders ),Raktadosham,(blood disorders),Vishama jwaram. 



    Hrudaya rogas ( heart diseases), Phuphusa rogas ( Lung diseases ).

    Increases the bala ( strength) 



    Grahani (irritable bowel syndrome), Arsas ( haemorrhoids), paandu ( anaemia ), Gulmam, mahodaram, sosham (emaciation). 
    Increases the digestive capacity. 



    Soola (pain in the abdomen ), arsas , aruchi, moothrarogam (Urinary diseases) Vayukshobham ( Vata aggravation due to shock). 



    Sopham ( oedema ), mahodaram, Pleeha rogam, Amlapitham (Hyper acidity), Yakrud rogam ( liver disorders), Gulmam, Jwaram. 



    Aartava dosham ( Menstrual disorders ), Sukra dosham ,Unmmadam, (Psychic disorders ), Apasmaaram ( epilepsy ). 
    Promoting Intellectual power , memory power and physical power.. 
    A special medicine for young children, old people. 

    Saaraswathaarishtam (Spl)


    Aartava dosham ( Menstrual disorders ), Sukra dosham ,Unmmadam, (Psychic disorders ), Apasmaaram ( epilepsy ). 
    Promoting Intellectual power , memory power and physical power.. 
    A special medicine for young children, old people. 



    Prameham ( diabetes ), Prameha pitakas( diabetic gangrene) , Upadamsam, Vaata raktam, Bhagantaram (Fistula). 



    Vidradhi, Vruddhi, Gulmam. Arsas (Haemorrhoids) , Vaata rogas, Yoni rogas, Soola(Pain), Sopham(Oedema), Udaram. 



    Swaasam (Asthma), kaasam ( cough). Raktapitam, kandharogam (Throat diseases), urakshatam. ( Chest Injury) 



    Peenasam ( Cold), Soola ( Abdominal pain ), Ajeernam ( Indigestion ).